CFS Special Counselor and Johns Hopkins professor Steve Hanke delivers the John Ise Distinguished Lecture at the University of Kansas – moderated by CFS Director of Advances in Monetary and Financial Measurement and KU Oswald Distinguished Professor of Macroeconomics.
Hanke and Barnett explored monetary systems throughout the world, tariffs and their effects on trade deficits, abolishing time zones and changing the calendar, plus “everything under the sun.” View video
Robert Z. Aliber offers his “Reflections on Bretton Woods.” Bob is professor emeritus of International Economics and Finance at the University of Chicago, co-author of Manias, Panics, and Crashes: A History of Financial Crises, and a good friend of CFS.
Bob covers much ground. Topics include:
- The White Mountains, Cog Railroad, and Mount Washington Hotel.
- Bretton Woods Conferences.
- How the Founders of Bretton Woods might view the last 75 years.
- Trade and Tariffs.
- The IMF.
The full report is available at http://www.CenterforFinancialStability.org/research/Reflections_on_Bretton_Woods_101719.pdf.
Thank you for your interest in my letter highlighting how determinants of inflation can be better understood. To clarify, two types of money exist ‘state money’ produced by the Fed and ‘bank money’ created by the private sector. Bank money drives growth. Today, bank money includes the service value of traditional commercial bank products such as deposits as well as shadow banking services such as commercial paper, money market funds, and repurchase agreements. In fact, what constitutes money may change over time as new financial products are introduced.
So, it is essential that the Fed, economists, and market participants measure and monitor both state and bank money. CFS Divisia accomplishes this feat by identifying assets that serve as money. Importantly, not all of these monetary assets provide equal amounts of service as money to the economy.
Bill Barnett uses the example of measuring the service value of transportation. Would a pair of roller skates and a locomotive provide equal value to the economy? No. So, CFS Divisia derives weights that vary over time.
For the theory, history and math behind CFS Divisia, please see Bill’s book Getting It Wrong … http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/getting_wrong.php
For a practical application of CFS Divisia see http://centerforfinancialstability.org/research/why_cfs_divisia_071316.pdf
The Wall Street Journal weekend edition printed my letter highlighting how determinants of inflation can be better understood.
CFS Divisia money growth warned about rising inflation and clearly explained why it was low coincident with QE.
To be clear, CFS Divisia money monitors the output of the financial system and its role in the monetary transmission mechanism. It is an essential barometer of the economy, whether one is a market practitioner, Keynesian, or monetarist.
Read the full letter – It May Make the World Go Round, but What’s Money
Despite the recent slip in inflation, many ponder a future of unexpectedly higher or more volatile inflation in the wake of extraordinary monetary measures over the last six years. While the Center for Financial Stability (CFS) is clearly NOT anticipating a return to runaway inflation, analysis of hyperinflation reveals lessons worth active study for public officials, investors, and the interested public.
CFS is delighted to release “Studies in Hyperinflation & Stabilization” by Professor Gail Makinen with a foreward by Thomas J. Sargent, co-recipient of the 2011 Nobel Prize in Economics.
Hyperinflation imposes heavy economic costs and undermines political and social stability – especially in emerging and frontier markets. Similarly, study of the evolution and stabilization of hyperinflation offers lessons to strengthen monetary and financial stability in advanced economies (For specific lessons)
Despite fears over the last few years regarding a surprise increase of inflation, CFS has warned against these concerns – based on the results of our Divisia monetary and financial data developed under the leadership of Professor William A. Barnett.
Best wishes into the holiday season and 2015.
In his paper titled “Inflation Targeting: A Monetary Police Regime Whose Time Has Come and Gone,” David Beckworth calls on the Fed to advance beyond inflation targeting.
Inflation targeting emerged in the early 1990s and soon became the dominant monetary-policy regime. It provided a much-needed nominal anchor that had been missing since the collapse of the Bretton Woods system. Its arrival coincided with a rise in macroeconomic stability for numerous countries, and this led many observers to conclude that it is the best way to do monetary policy. Some studies show, however, that inflation targeting got lucky. It is a monetary regime that has a hard time dealing with large supply shocks, and its arrival occurred during a period when they were small. Since this time, supply shocks have become larger, and inflation targeting has struggled to cope with them. Moreover, the recent crisis suggests it has also a tough time dealing with large demand shocks, and it may even contribute to financial instability. Inflation targeting, therefore, is not a robust monetary-policy regime, and it needs to be replaced.
ABOUT DAVID BECKWORTH
David Beckworth is a former international economist at the US Department of
the Treasury and the author of Boom and Bust Banking: The Causes and Cures of the Great Recession. His research focuses on monetary policy. Currently he is an assistant professor at Western Kentucky University.
Read the paper at http://mercatus.org/sites/default/files/Beckworth-Inflation-Targeting.pdf.
In his blog, Marcus Nunes comments on Allan Meltzer’s five-year long inflation forecast. He believes that Meltzer is looking at the wrong money supply measure, and using CFS Divisia M4, Nunes shows what money growth has been.
Read Joao Marcus Marinho Nunes’ blog post.
Today we release CFS monetary and financial measures for June 2013. CFS Divisia M4, which is the broadest and most important measure of money, grew by 4.2% in June 2013 on a year-over-year basis.
CFS monetary data provide particular insights regarding a shift in Federal Reserve policy and future policy moves. For special analysis, please contact LeAnn Yee at email@example.com.
For Monetary and Financial Data Release:
This morning, Min Zeng and Carolyn Cui from the WSJ wrote a terrific piece For Treasury, a Question of Fundamentals / Department Seeks Answers for Inflation-Protected Securities.
I would add that two factors are operative in pushing real yields (TIPS) higher:
First, investors are re-balancing their portfolios from bonds to stocks on the heels of tapering comments. A Fed less active in purchasing Treasury obligations at some future date reduces the constant bid for all Treasuries – TIPS included.
Second, the TIPS market was mispriced with negative yields. Inflation is positive at present…and will likely remain substantially above zero for the foreseeable future. June CPI inflation reached 1.8% on a year-over-year basis up from 1.4% the previous month,
The bottom line is Fed purchases have distorted pricing in the Treasury market. Changes on the margin prompt swift shifts in pricing and yields.
Today my letter in the FT expresses delight in seeing CFS Divisia money supply on Martin Wolf’s monetary policy dashboard.
Despite a differing perspective, we are grateful for the emphasis on quantities for gauging policy in a world of interest rates at or near zero.
Quantities essential for gauging policy
America owes a lot to Bernanke