About Steven Lofchie

Steven Lofchie is Senior Fellow of Legal Studies at the Center for Financial Stability and Co-chairman of the Financial Services Department at Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft LLP.

SEC Commissioner Hester Peirce Describes Regulatory Challenges Posed by Cryptocurrency

In remarks at the University of Missouri School of Law, SEC Commissioner Hester Peirce described the difficulty in applying securities laws in general, and the Howey test in particular, to virtual currency and initial coin offerings. Ms. Peirce expressed concern that the SEC’s application of the Howey test will be “overly broad,” stating that token offerings do not always resemble traditional securities offerings. Some cryptocurrency projects may be unable to proceed because they cannot comply with applicable securities regulations, she said. In addition, she encouraged a “delay in drawing clear lines” for the regulation of virtual currency transactions which may provide more freedom for the technology to develop. Ms. Peirce noted that the SEC staff is working on “supplemental guidance” to “help people think through whether their crypto-fundraising efforts fall under the securities laws.”

Ms. Peirce stated that regulators tend to be unenthusiastic about innovation, given that it forces unwanted adjustments on them, as well as the possibility of negative consequences that are difficult to predict. The Commissioner said that the SEC must be open to innovation, given its potential to make our “lives easier, more enjoyable and more productive.” She raised a number of questions as to regulatory changes that might be considered in light of new technology; changing the ways in which firms communicate with their investors, for example, or revising the SEC’s recordkeeping rules.

Ms. Peirce also praised the SEC’s new office of “Small Business Capital Formation” and its first Advocate, Martha Miller.

Lofchie Comment: It’s a great thing when we have regulators who are thoughtful about the exercise of regulatory power, and are willing to weigh in a public forum the benefits and detriments of the use of that power. (I look forward, even if it requires quite a long look forward, to seeing her on late night television talk shows.)

Senator Elizabeth Warren Questions Federal Reserve Board on Bank Merger Approvals

In a letter to Federal Reserve Board (“FRB”) Chair Jerome Powell, Senator Elizabeth Warren (D-MA) raised questions about the FRB’s approval process for bank mergers and acquisitions (“M&A”). Ms. Warren first wrote to the FRB about its review of bank mergers in April 2018.

Ms. Warren voiced concern about FRB’s high rates of M&A application approvals. She also expressed concern about the FRB’s practice of allowing consultations between FRB staff and M&A applicants, which raise “questions about transparency and fairness.”

Ms. Warren’s letter was released after SunTrust Banks, Inc. and BB&T Corporation announced an agreement to merge, which would create the sixth-largest U.S. bank. Ms. Warren stated that the FRB’s record of “summarily” approving all M&A requests could have substantial impacts on consumer choice and competition.

Ms. Warren requested answers to her questions on the factors underlying increased bank M&A activity by February 21, 2019.

Lofchie Comment: Senator Warren’s concerns as to the percentage of bank merger applications that are approved totally misses the point, at least if the point is good financial regulation. If the regulators are (i) transparent as to what the standards are and (ii) consistent in the application of those standards, then it follows that a very high percentage of applications will be approved. Market participants know what the rules are. Conversely, if the regulators are opaque as to the standards, and if application of those standards is inconsistent (in other words, if the regulatory system is not working well), the percentage of applications approved may be much lower because the regulators are being more arbitrary in their exercise of power.

Senator Warren should focus on the standards by which approvals are granted and not on the percentage of applications granted.

CFPB Proposes Rescinding Provisions of Payday Lending Rule

The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) proposed rescinding the mandatory underwriting provisions of a final rule governing “Payday, Vehicle Title and Certain High-Cost Installment Loans.” Additionally, the CFPB proposed to delay the compliance date for the mandatory underwriting provisions of the final rule (originally August 19, 2019) until November 19, 2020.

The CFPB proposed to rescind:

  • the “identification” provision, which establishes that it is an “unfair and abusive practice for a lender to make covered short-term loans or covered longer-term balloon-payment loans without reasonably determining that consumers will have the ability to repay the loans”;
  • the “prevention” provision, which creates underwriting requirements for these loans to prevent the “unfair and abusive practice”;
  • the “conditional exemption,” for particular covered short-term loans;
  • the “furnishing” provisions, which obligate lenders who are making covered short-term or longer-term balloon-payment loans to “furnish certain information regarding such loans to registered information systems”; and
  • the parts of the recordkeeping provisions that are associated with the mandatory underwriting requirements.

The CFPB also proposed to rescind the Official Interpretations linked to these five provisions. Comments on the proposal to rescind the mandatory underwriting provisions must be submitted no later than 90 days following publication of the proposal in the Federal Register.

Comments on the proposal to delay the compliance date for mandatory underwriting provisions of the final rule must be submitted no later than 30 days following publication of the proposal in the Federal Register.

Lofchie Comment: The CFPB’s payday lending requirements seem intended as much to prevent payday lending by imposing regulations that are impractical to follow.  The policy question is whether this effective prohibition is good for those who actually need to borrow money or whether government’s protective or prohibitive policies hurt those whom it purports to help. This is not an easy question, but query whether the CFPB really tried to answer it before it adopted its anti-payday lending rules. See also CFPB Imposes Stricter Rules for Payday Lending.

UK and EU Securities Regulators Agree to Cooperate in Event of No-Deal Brexit

The Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”), the European Securities and Markets Authority (“ESMA”) and other EU securities regulators agreed to two Memoranda of Understanding (“MoUs”) regarding the activities of credit rating agencies, trade repositories and asset managers. These MoUs would be effective only if UK and EU authorities fail to reach an agreement over Brexit.

The multilateral MoU with the FCA, the EU and European Economic Area (“EEA”) National Competent Authorities (i) includes “supervisory cooperation, enforcement and information exchange” and (ii) allows the regulators to access information on, “amongst others, market surveillance, investment services and asset management activities.” The MoU allows certain activities, such as fund manager outsourcing and delegation, to continue to be carried out by UK-based entities on behalf of counterparties based in the EEA. For the funds industry, the MoU provides certainty to firms that delegate fund management to UK asset managers.

The MoU, with the FCA and ESMA, concerns information regarding the supervision of credit rating agencies and trade repositories. The MoU paves the way to allow EU counterparties to continue using those trade repositories.

FDIC Chair Jelena McWilliams Highlights Policies to Serve Underbanked Customers

FDIC Chair Jelena McWilliams highlighted agency priorities to ensure that banks offer “affordable, responsible financial products and services to consumers across the spectrum.”

In remarks at the Florida Bankers Association Leadership Dinner, Ms. McWilliams stated that the agency’s priorities include:

  • encouraging de novo bank formation; she said that de novo banks are a “key source of new capital, talent, ideas, and ways to serve customers”;
  • tailoring FDIC’s regulations to permit banks to serve customers more efficiently while also making sure banks stay “safe and sound”;
  • taking a “holistic” look at the FDIC’s supervision of banks;
  • ensuring that banks “leverag[e] technology” to reach unbanked and underbanked consumers;
  • “protecting the Deposit Insurance Fund and maintaining financial stability [while] allowing banks room to be nimble and make the right business decisions to better serve their customers and communities”; and
  • ensuring that the FDIC and the banking industry respond to changes in consumer behavior.

Lofchie Comment: FDIC Chair McWilliams’ comments focused to a significant degree on assisting banks in providing services to the poor and overextended, those who live “paycheck to paycheck” and who sometimes “need immediate access to cash to cover an unexpected cost before the next paycheck.” The business of lending money to those who urgently need small amounts for short periods was disparagingly referred to as “payday lending.” Under the CFPB’s prior administration the CFPB adopted rules that would have significantly discouraged such lending. See, e.g., CFPB Imposes Stricter Rules for Payday Lending. While it is all well and good to regulate practices that protect disadvantaged consumers, it is not so great if the protection leaves these consumers worse off by depriving them entirely of access to credit. Ms. McWilliams comments suggest that she will be more attuned to the costs as well as the benefits of regulation.

NYDFS Superintendent Reminds Firms of Final Implementation Date for Cybersecurity Regulation

New York State Department of Financial Services (“NYDFS”) Superintendent Maria Vullo reminded NYDFS-regulated entities that they must be in full compliance with the requirements of the NYDFS’s cybersecurity regulation by March 1, 2019.

The NYDFS cybersecurity regulation requires banks, insurance companies and other institutions regulated by the NYDFS (“covered entities”) to implement a cybersecurity program to protect consumer data (see previous coverage). The NYDFS cybersecurity regulation went into effect on March 1, 2017, subject to a two-year implementation timeline. The final step in the implementation timeline requires covered entities to adopt policies governing arrangements with third-party providers that have access to firms’ nonpublic information. The NYDFS also reminded firms to file a certificate of compliance for the prior calendar year by February 15, 2019.

Lofchie Comment: As previously described, the NYDFS rules are open-ended, complex and burdensome and will result in creating many new ways for the government to collect fines when something goes wrong.

CFTC Chair Giancarlo Seeks to Extend SEF Comment Period, Move Forward on Cross-Border Framework

CFTC Chair J. Christopher Giancarlo will seek an extension (to March 15) of the comment period for a proposal to amend various aspects of the rules governing the trading of swaps (the “SEF Proposal”). He also intends to move forward with amendments to the CFTC cross-border framework.

In a keynote address at the ABA Business Law Section Derivative & Futures Law Committee Meeting, Mr. Giancarlo highlighted aspects of the SEF Proposal and his approach to cross-border regulation.

On cross-border matters, Mr. Giancarlo reiterated points he raised in a 2018 white paper, “Cross-Border Swaps Regulation Version 2.0.” He recommended changes to the rules to avoid the fragmentation of liquidity across borders, which, he argued, results in smaller liquidity pools with less efficient and more volatile pricing. Mr. Giancarlo said he remains open to refinements of his approach, particularly as it relates to “arranged, negotiated or executed” transactions. Mr. Giancarlo said he would direct the CFTC staff to prepare “as soon as possible . . . various new cross-border rule proposals.” He said these proposals will address a range of issues, including the registration and regulation of swap dealers, swaps central counterparties and swaps-trading venues.

On the SEF Proposal, Mr. Giancarlo said that recent deliberations with market participants showed widespread agreement that “the current framework is flawed, clunky and would benefit from substantial revision.” He noted general support for (i) replacing existing guidance and no-action letters with final rules, (ii) more flexible methods of execution, (iii) easing the burdens of swap execution facility (“SEF”) compliance and (iv) broker proficiency exams.

Mr. Giancarlo said that market participants expressed their concerns with (i) the process and timing of any new rules, (ii) proposed restrictions on pre-trade communications and (iii) “overly simplified” changes to the standard for “impartial access.”

He welcomed comments on, among other things:

  • certain minimum conditions with adequate timing for connectivity and onboarding that could be imposed before swaps became subject to mandatory trading;
  • the pre-trade communications rule, which, he said, was not intended to “disintermediate essential client relationships;”
  • whether encouraging liquidity and price formation on SEFs is sufficiently furthered without a need to ban pre-trade communications off SEFs; and
  • whether the imposition of minimum membership standards (to the extent consistent with an SEF statutory right to establish such criteria) would improve the proposed standards.

In light of the interest in the proposal, Mr. Giancarlo will seek to extend the comment period to March 15. (The comment deadline for the SEF proposal is currently February 13, 2019.)

OFAC Designates Venezuelan Oil Sector Company for Sanctions

The U.S. Treasury (“Treasury”) Department Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) sanctioned Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (“PdVSA”), the Venezuelan state-owned oil and natural gas company, pursuant to Executive Order (“EO”) 13850.

The move comes less than a week after the United States recognized opposition politician Juan Guaidó as the interim leader of Venezuela. In general – and except as provided in the General Licenses described below – as of January 28, 2019, the property and interests in property of PdVSA and its majority-owned subsidiaries are blocked, and U.S. persons are prohibited from having dealings with them.

The action to designate PdVSA followed a determination made by Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin, in consultation with Secretary of State Michael Pompeo, that persons who operate in the oil sector of the Venezuelan economy may be subject to sanctions. While the addition of PdVSA to OFAC’s Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons List (“SDN List”) imposes broad prohibitions on dealings with the Venezuelan state-owned oil company, OFAC simultaneously issued seven General Licenses that authorize certain transactions with PdVSA and its subsidiaries, including U.S.-based refiner and retailer CITGO Holding, Inc. (“CITGO”) and its corporate parent, PDV Holding, Inc. (“PDVH”).

Most importantly, General License 7 and General License 12 permit the continued importation into the United States of Venezuelan oil through April 28, 2019, provided that any payments to PdVSA or its majority-owned subsidiaries – other than CITGO and PDVH – be made into a blocked, interest-bearing account located in the United States. Because the U.S. government previously prohibited CITGO from transferring profits to PdVSA, the cumulative effect of the January 28 sanctions is to prevent Venezuelan oil profits earned in the United States from flowing back to PdVSA and, by extension, the regime of Nicolás Maduro.

Separately, President Donald J. Trump signed a new Executive Order expanding the definition of “Government of Venezuela” specifically to include PdVSA, as well as “persons that have acted, or have purported to act, on behalf of the Government of Venezuela, including members of the Maduro regime.”

SEC Recommences Normal Operations

SEC Chair Jay Clayton announced that the agency is back to normal staffing and operations. Mr. Clayton stated that the Divisions of Corporation Finance, Trading and Markets, Investment Management and the Office of Compliance Inspections and Examinations, “will be publishing statements in the coming days regarding their transition plans.”

Ranking Member of the House Financial Services Committee Offers Republican List of Hearing Priorities

Ranking Member of the House Financial Services Committee (“HFSC”) Patrick McHenry (R-NC) offered to cooperate with new Chair Maxine Waters on a list of priorities affecting the U.S. financial system.

According to Mr. McHenry, the list of hearing topics concern areas that are critical to ensuring the “strength and stability of the U.S. financial system and the global competitiveness of American job creators.” The list includes:

  • Britain’s withdrawal from the European Union and its effects on the U.S. economy and the international financial system;
  • the Export-Import Bank and “its impact on the global competitiveness of U.S. companies and U.S. job creation”;
  • cybersecurity within the financial space, to evaluate the “readiness” of the financial sector and the ability of the U.S. government to protect digital consumer accounts against fraud, misuse and improper access;
  • China’s “debt trap” and the implications of China’s lending decisions in relation to the IMF, the World Bank and global systemic risk;
  • foreign investment and venture capital in the global economy, to assess how the U.S. Treasury Department is implementing the Foreign Investment Risk Review Modernization Act of 2018;
  • scheduled reductions to the Federal Reserve’s balance sheet, specifically in relation to unwinding crisis-era asset purchases;
  • the National Flood Insurance Program (“NFIP”), to examine proposed reforms that could impact the “affordability, availability and long-term solvency of the NFIP”;
  • the modernization of the Bank Secrecy Act and Anti-Money Laundering regulatory regime to inspect the duplicative nature of the current rules;
  • the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act, to provide oversight of the program, better comprehend the private insurance market, and build consensus before the program expires;
  • the regulation of FinTech; and
  • the oversight of the Financial Accounting Standards Board and its Current Expected Credit Loss Accounting Standard.

Mr. McHenry noted that the list is not exclusive, but that it gives the HFSC an opportunity to better understand the “complex legislative landscape we will face this Congress.”

Lofchie Comment: The list contains a number of important big-picture concerns. It is not a list, however, likely to generate much political or press excitement. In this environment, it is an open question whether Chair Waters will take up any of the items on Representative McHenry’s list.